Bitmaps

Introduction

PyX focuses on the creation of scaleable vector graphics. However, PyX also allows for the output of bitmap images. Still, the support for creation and handling of bitmap images is quite limited. On the other hand the interfaces are built that way, that its trivial to combine PyX with the “Python Image Library”, also known as “PIL”.

The creation of a bitmap can be performed out of some unpacked binary data by first creating image instances:

from pyx import *
image_bw = bitmap.image(2, 2, "L", "\0\377\377\0")
image_rgb = bitmap.image(3, 2, "RGB", "\77\77\77\177\177\177\277\277\277"
                                      "\377\0\0\0\377\0\0\0\377")

Now image_bw is a \(2\times2\) grayscale image. The bitmap data is provided by a string, which contains two black ("\0" == chr(0)) and two white ("\377" == chr(255)) pixels. Currently the values per (colour) channel is fixed to 8 bits. The coloured image image_rgb has \(3\times2\) pixels containing a row of 3 different gray values and a row of the three colours red, green, and blue.

The images can then be wrapped into bitmap instances by:

bitmap_bw = bitmap.bitmap(0, 1, image_bw, height=0.8)
bitmap_rgb = bitmap.bitmap(0, 0, image_rgb, height=0.8)

When constructing a bitmap instance you have to specify a certain position by the first two arguments fixing the bitmaps lower left corner. Some optional arguments control further properties. Since in this example there is no information about the dpi-value of the images, we have to specify at least a width or a height of the bitmap.

The bitmaps are now to be inserted into a canvas:

c = canvas.canvas()
c.insert(bitmap_bw)
c.insert(bitmap_rgb)
c.writeEPSfile("bitmap")

Figure An introductory bitmap example. shows the resulting output.

_images/bitmap.png

An introductory bitmap example.

Bitmap module: Bitmap support

class bitmap.image(width, height, mode, data, compressed=None)

This class is a container for image data. width and height are the size of the image in pixel. mode is one of "L", " RGB" or "CMYK" for grayscale, rgb, or cmyk colours, respectively. data is the bitmap data as a string, where each single character represents a colour value with ordinal range 0 to 255. Each pixel is described by the appropriate number of colour components according to mode. The pixels are listed row by row one after the other starting at the upper left corner of the image.

compressed might be set to " Flate" or "DCT" to provide already compressed data. Note that those data will be passed to PostScript without further checks, i.e. this option is for experts only.

class bitmap.jpegimage(file)

This class is specialized to read data from a JPEG/JFIF-file. file is either an open file handle (it only has to provide a read() method; the file should be opened in binary mode) or a string. In the latter case jpegimage will try to open a file named like file for reading.

The contents of the file is checked for some JPEG/JFIF format markers in order to identify the size and dpi resolution of the image for further usage. These checks will typically fail for invalid data. The data are not uncompressed, but directly inserted into the output stream (for invalid data the result will be invalid PostScript). Thus there is no quality loss by recompressing the data as it would occur when recompressing the uncompressed stream with the lossy jpeg compression method.

class bitmap.bitmap(xpos, ypos, image, width=None, height=None, ratio=None, storedata=0, maxstrlen=4093, compressmode="Flate", flatecompresslevel=6, dctquality=75, dctoptimize=1, dctprogression=0)

xpos and ypos are the position of the lower left corner of the image. This position might be modified by some additional transformations when inserting the bitmap into a canvas. image is an instance of image or jpegimage but it can also be an image instance from the “Python Image Library”.

width, height, and ratio adjust the size of the image. At least width or height needs to be given, when no dpi information is available from image.

storedata is a flag indicating, that the (still compressed) image data should be put into the printers memory instead of writing it as a stream into the PostScript file. While this feature consumes memory of the PostScript interpreter, it allows for multiple usage of the image without including the image data several times in the PostScript file.

maxstrlen defines a maximal string length when storedata is enabled. Since the data must be kept in the PostScript interpreters memory, it is stored in strings. While most interpreters do not allow for an arbitrary string length (a common limit is 65535 characters), a limit for the string length is set. When more data need to be stored, a list of strings will be used. Note that lists are also subject to some implementation limits. Since a typical value is 65535 entries, in combination a huge amount of memory can be used.

Valid values for compressmode currently are "Flate" (zlib compression), "DCT" (jpeg compression), or None (disabling the compression). The zlib compression makes use of the zlib module as it is part of the standard Python distribution. The jpeg compression is available for those image instances only, which support the creation of a jpeg-compressed stream, e.g. images from the “Python Image Library” with jpeg support installed. The compression must be disabled when the image data is already compressed.

flatecompresslevel is a parameter of the zlib compression. dctquality, dctoptimize, and dctprogression are parameters of the jpeg compression. Note, that the progression feature of the jpeg compression should be turned off in order to produce valid PostScript. Also the optimization feature is known to produce errors on certain printers.

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